GRAPHIC MARK (LOGO)

A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. Logos are either purely graphic (symbols/icons) or composed of the name of the organization (a logotype or wordmark). Examples of well-known logotypes (wordmarks) are the striped IBM design and Coca-Cola written in flowing red script.

LOGOTYPE

A logotype is a graphic element which uniquely identifies corporations, products, services, institutions, agencies, associations, events, or any kind of organization in order to publicly differentiate the owner of the logotype from other entities. A logotype is actually a brandname set in a special typeface/font arranged in a particular way.

A logotype consists of either a name or a sign and a name. Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. Otherwise, it should be seen as a different element, used to reinforce the identity of the owner, together with the logotype.

TRADEMARK

A trademark (sometimes written as trade mark) is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or another legal entity to identify that the products or services originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities.

A trademark is a type of intellectual property, typically — a name, a word, a phrase, logo, a symbol, design, an image, or a combination of these elements. There is also a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories. The owner of a registered trademark may commence legal proceedings for trademark infringement to prevent unauthorized use of that trademark. However, registration is not required. The owner of a common law trademark may also file a suit, but an unregistered mark may be protectable only within the geographic area in which it has been used or in geographic areas into which it may be reasonably expected to expand.

P.S. The words emblem, coat of arms and symbol often appear interchangeably in everyday conversations without causing undue confusion. A distinction between them may seem unnecessarily fastidious.

However, it is important to know that an emblem is a pattern that is used to represent an idea, or an individual. An emblem crystallizes in concrete, visual terms, for instance, a deity, a tribe or nation, a virtue or a vice.

An emblem is an object or a representation of an object. A symbol can be an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. 

In heraldry, a coat of arms is a distinctive design painted on a shield, but the term is also broadly applied to the heraldic achievement consisting of the shield and certain accessories; in either sense, the design is a symbol unique to a person, family, corporation or state.